Charles II of Spain dies His will, the contents of which are public knowledge, makes Louis XIV's grandson the King of Spain, on the condition that the country is neither divided nor united with France.
The Great Northern War begins This war, in reality a series of wars fought between on the one hand Saxony-Poland, Denmark-Norway and Russia, and on the other hand Sweden. Poland wanted expansion into the Baltic countries, while Denmark wished to crush Gottorp and repossess Scania. The Czar of Russia, Peter I "the Great", wanted to ensure his access to the Baltic Sea.
The War of the Spanish Succession breaks out As a reaction to the sudden concentration of power in the hands of the French monarchy, war breaks out between on the one hand France, Spain and some German allies; on the other, Austria, England, the Netherlands and the greater part of Germany, with Brandenburg-Prussia in the lead.
The Peace of Utrecht ends the War of the Spanish Succession Louis XIV's grandson remains Spanish heir; the ban on a unification of Spain and France is underlined; Spain loses her possessions in Italy and the Netherlands, which are then partitioned between Austria and Savoy; England claims Gibraltar and Menorca; additionally, France cedes portions of North America to England.
War of the Polish Succession ends The Austrian/Russian candidate is chosen as King. The French-supported candidate receives the Duchy of Lorraine as compensation, and Austria cedes Naples and Sicily to a Spanish prince.
"The Young Pretender" invades England Charles Edward Stuart, "the Young Pretender" to the throne of Scotland, lands on Eriskay Island, defeats the English at Prestonpans, advances south towards Derby, but is forced to retreat.
Battles at Falkirk and Culloden Charles Edward Stuart, "the Young Pretender" to the throne of Scotland, is victorious at Falkirk, but is later defeated at Culloden, on April 16th. He manages, however, to escape to France.
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